By Khalid Rehman Hakeem

Meeting the world’s foodstuff safety problem would require a multi-national, collaborative attempt to combine the simplest learn from technology, engineering and socioeconomics in order that technological advances can carry advantages the place they're so much wanted. the current ebook covers the influence of significant environmental difficulties on crop construction and the way to deal with those concerns for sustainable agriculture and enhancements of plants.

The world’s inhabitants is expected to hit 9.6 Billion by way of 2050, up from today’s overall of approximately 7.3 Billion, and with it foodstuff call for is expected to extend considerably. The post-war ‘second agricultural revolution’ in built international locations, and the ‘green revolution’ in constructing countries within the mid- Sixties switched over agricultural practices and increased crop yields spectacularly, however the consequence is levelling off and won't meet projected call for. concurrently, crop construction is laid low with many different components, together with business pollutants, overuse of fertilizers and pesticides, heavy steel and radiation stresses and so on. it's been famous that many pests have gotten proof against pesticides. Estimates fluctuate, yet round 25% of plants may be misplaced to pests and ailments. weather switch linked to agriculture is usually an international factor. Agriculture is an important contributor to greenhouse gases and is envisioned to account for 10-12% of overall greenhouse fuel (GHG) emissions. a few of the concerns highlighted are worldwide difficulties and are addressed thoroug

hly during this work.

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Many studies have been reported on the effects of UV radiations. Among them UV-B are more common because UV-B levels directly depend on the ozone layer and those levels are continuously increasing due to ozone depletion. The effect of UV-B can be categorized as the effect on morphological, physiological, and biochemical processes and DNA damage and changes in genotype of crops. 1 Effect of UV-B on Crop Morphology UV-B radiations are known to cause many anatomical and morphogenic changes in crop plants, including smaller leaf size, folding, discoloration and browning (Teramura et al.

Enzy Microb Technol 40:132–137 Croce R, van Amerongen H (2011) Light-harvesting and structural organization of photosystem II: from individual complexes to thylakoid membrane. J Photochem Photobiol B 104:142–153 Dal Corso G, Fasani E, Furini A (2013) Recent advances in the analysis of metal hyper accumulation and hyper tolerance in plants using proteomics. Front Plant Sci 4:280 Dazy M, Masfaraud J-F, Férard J-F (2009) Induction of oxidative stress biomarkers associated with heavy metal stress in Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw.

The stratosphere separates the lower layer from the upper layers of the mesosphere and thermosphere. Its altitude spreads from 10 to15 km, containing most of the ozone’s atmosphere (Campillo et al. 2012). Ozone is divided into two types: ground ozone and ozone layer. Most of the harmful radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer in order to protect the living organisms that live on Earth. Ozone started accumulating in the atmosphere as a waste gas about 200 billion years ago, and when photosynthetic organisms started releasing oxygen (McMichael 1993) 400 Ma ago evolution occurred and aquatic plants moved to the land to begin terrestrial life.

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