By Stefan Reis, Clare Howard, Mark A. Sutton
This booklet examines the prices all in favour of decreasing ammonia emissions from agricultural practices in addition to the capability advantages for weather swap mitigation. It beneficial properties contributions by way of specialists in agricultural construction tactics, manufacturers of agricultural gear and repair companies in addition to scientists who investigate the difficulty from an eu point of view.
Coverage examines all agricultural construction levels ranging from animal feed and housing, together with the garage and alertness of liquid and reliable manure and of mineral fertilizer. moreover, the booklet seems on the dating among ammonia keep an eye on and greenhouse gasoline emissions and info the profits (Greenhouse fuel and pollution Interactions and Synergies) version for estimating charges and lowering ammonia emissions from agriculture. Examples and case reviews from decide on eu international locations, together with Italy, Switzerland, Russia, eire, and Spain, supply readers with particular stories of ammonia abatement expenditures and the effectiveness of enforcing regulate measures below assorted stipulations. This e-book is the results of a professional Workshop held lower than the auspices of the UNECE conference on Long-range Transboundary pollution (CLRTAP) and organised by way of the duty strength on Reactive Nitrogen (TFRN). The findings of this workshop have expert the improvement of records assisting the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol and supplied researchers and practitioners with important new information. Bringing jointly a wealth of key info at the charges of ammonia abatement and the weather co-benefits, this monograph offers readers with deep perception into this advanced issue.
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Additional resources for Costs of Ammonia Abatement and the Climate Co-Benefits
Costs were much higher (up to € 62) when no synthetic amino acids but standard feed ingredients were used to adjust the feed for the amino acid requirements. For poultry, no actual data were found in literature to compare the economic effects of low N feeding strategies in broilers and laying hens. M. O. nl C. W. nl O. O. nl © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015 S. Reis et al. M. van Vuuren et al. 40 per kg of NH3 reduced or in extra costs of € 6 per kg of NH3 reduced. Costs of low-N feeding strategies in near future will be influenced by the competing demands for low-N biomass by the growing livestock sector and the growing biofuel sector.
For pig slurry, with an average dry matter content of about 10 %, the long-distance (50–150 km) transport costs were 2 Economic Costs of Nitrogen Management in Agriculture 19 Fig. 3 Relationships between N surplus and total NH3 emissions at farm level. Results are based on 16 Cows and Opportunities dairy farms during the period 2003–2009, when all farms complied to the ammonia abatement measures listed in Annex IX of the Gothenburg Protocol (Oenema et al. 2012) on average 6 € per m3, but depending on distance and fuel prices.
Evidently, increasing the NFRV by a factor of 2 to 9 is a big leap and may not be achieved in 1 year. Apart from the optimization of activities at operational and tactical levels, incentives to improve N management may also induce changes at strategic level of farming operations. The results presented in Sects. 4 about dairy farms and pig and poultry farms indicate that entrepreneurial forerunners make additional investments to increase productivity and to lower the costs of N management measures.