By David A. Patterson
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Extra resources for Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware Software Interface, 3rd Edition
Clearly, to participate you must understand some of the characteristics of both. Equal in importance to an understanding of integrated circuit technology is an understanding of the expected rates of technological change. While silicon fuels the rapid advance of hardware, new ideas in the organization of computers have improved price/performance. Two of the key ideas are exploiting parallelism in the processor, typically via pipelining, and exploiting locality of accesses to a memory hierarchy, typically via caches.
The masks used to make the chip are expensive, so the cost per chip is lower for higher volumes. 4. Engineering development costs are high and largely independent of volume; thus, the development cost per die is lower with high-volume parts. 5. High-volume parts usually have smaller die sizes than low-volume parts and therefore have higher yield per wafer. 5 The purpose of a section on fallacies and pitfalls, which will be found in every chapter, is to explain some commonly held misconceptions that you might encounter.
23 Technology in which single chip that contains hundreds of thousands to millions of transistors. 24  Single software command to a processor. 25  Small, fast memory that acts as a buffer for the main memory. 26  Specific interface that the hardware provides the low-level software. 27  Substance that does not conduct electricity well but is the foundation of integrated circuits. 28  Thin disk sliced from a silicon crystal ingot, which will be later divided into dies. 45 Using the categories in the list below, classify the following examples.