By John L. Hennessy
This best-selling identify, thought of for over a decade to be crucial studying for each severe pupil and practitioner of desktop layout, has been up to date all through to handle crucial traits dealing with computing device designers at the present time. during this variation, the authors convey their trademark approach to quantitative research not just to excessive functionality computer laptop layout, but in addition to the layout of embedded and server structures. they've got illustrated their rules with designs from all 3 of those domain names, together with examples from patron electronics, multimedia and net applied sciences, and excessive functionality computing.The booklet keeps its hugely rated good points: Fallacies and Pitfalls, which percentage the hard-won classes of genuine designers; historic views, which supply a deeper examine desktop layout historical past; placing all of it jointly, which current a layout instance that illustrates the foundations of the bankruptcy; labored Examples, which problem the reader to use the strategies, theories and strategies in smaller scale difficulties; and Cross-Cutting matters, which convey how the information coated in a single bankruptcy have interaction with these provided in others. furthermore, a brand new characteristic, one other View, offers short layout examples in a single of the 3 domain names except the only selected for placing all of it Together.The authors current a brand new association of the cloth in addition, lowering the overlap with their different textual content, machine association and layout: A Hardware/Software process 2/e, and providing extra in-depth therapy of complicated issues in multithreading, guideline point parallelism, VLIW architectures, reminiscence hierarchies, garage units and community technologies.Also new to this variation, is the adoption of the MIPS sixty four because the guide set structure. as well as numerous on-line appendixes, new appendixes should be revealed within the booklet: one incorporates a entire evaluation of the fundamental ideas of pipelining, the opposite presents ideas a range of the workouts. either may be precious to the coed or expert studying on her personal or within the school room. Hennessy and Patterson proceed to target primary ideas for designing genuine machines and for maximizing their cost/performance. * provides cutting-edge layout examples including:* IA-64 structure and its first implementation, the Itanium * Pipeline designs for Pentium III and Pentium IV * The cluster that runs the Google seek engine * EMC garage platforms and their functionality* Sony Playstation 2* Infiniband, a brand new garage quarter and method zone community* SunFire 6800 multiprocessor server and its processor the UltraSPARC III* Trimedia TM32 media processor and the Transmeta Crusoe processor* Examines quantitative functionality research within the advertisement server marketplace and the embedded marketplace, in addition to the normal computing device market.Updates all of the examples and figures with the newest benchmarks, resembling SPEC 2000.* Expands assurance of guideline units to incorporate descriptions of electronic sign processors, media processors, and multimedia extensions to computer processors.* Analyzes skill, rate, and function of disks over decades.Surveys the position of clusters in medical computing and advertisement computing.* provides a survey, taxonomy, and the benchmarks of mistakes and screw ups in machine systems.* offers specified descriptions of the layout of garage structures and of clusters.* Surveys reminiscence hierarchies in sleek microprocessors and the main parameters of recent disks.* offers a word list of networking phrases.
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Additional info for Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 3rd Edition, 2002
There are four broad categories of apporoaches here: 1. No source code modifications are allowed. The SPEC benchmarks fall into this class, as do most of the standard PC benchmarks. 2. Source code modification are allowed, but are essentially difficult or impossible. Benchmarks like TPC-C rely on standard databases, such as Oracle or Microsoft’s SQL server. TPC-C also relies heavily on the operating system, which can be change, provided those changes become part of the production version. 3. Source modifications are allowed.
Kernels are best used to isolate performance of individual features of a machine to explain the reasons for differences in performance of real programs. 4. Toy benchmarks—Toy benchmarks are typically between 10 and 100 lines of code and produce a result the user already knows before running the toy program. Programs like Sieve of Eratosthenes, Puzzle, and Quicksort are popular because they are small, easy to type, and run on almost any computer. The best use of such programs is beginning programming assignments.
If this can’t be done, then normalizing so that equal time is spent on each program on some machine at least makes the rel- 40 Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Computer Design ative weightings explicit and will predict execution time of a workload with that mix. The problem above of unspeciﬁed inputs is best solved by specifying the inputs when comparing performance. If results must be normalized to a speciﬁc machine, ﬁrst summarize performance with the proper weighted measure and then do the normalizing.