By Prof Evelyn B. Tribble;Dr Nicholas Keene

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For alas what stuff is this? Or else how did they sing psalms to GOD and read them vpon the booke? ’ (L2r). Gifford argued here for the necessary intertwining of internal and external resources, for the ultimate impossibility of a purely disincarnate mode of address to God. ’ In A Fewe Observations about Mr. , instructions of the minde what to pray? Then he must needs plead for his image and al poperye, if these bodily actions and gestures be instructed of the minde, which are but preparations to make the body serviceable and apt to in this dutie.

G. 1 Both Catholicism and Protestantism required such a socially distributed system of memory, but because of the high priority placed upon scriptural authority and because of the concomitant importance of understanding rather than repetition, the level of cognitive scaffolding demanded by Protestantism was especially high. Thus the English Reformers re-built mnemonic scaffolds, privileging and prescribing new methods of remembering. If, as Clark argues, human brains are necessarily incomplete, thirsty for ‘cheap, outsourced labor’ (2008: 162), constantly seeking to extend their reach through external supports and technologies, then eschewing some ready-to-hand means of doing so strains our abilities.

Abessa, blind, deaf, and dumb, flees in fear from Una until she reaches a dark cave where her mother 30 Cognitive Ecologies and the History of Remembering is bidding her beads in the sort of repetitive, mindless prayer that for Protestants epitomized the emptiness of Catholic practice: She [Una] found them both [Abessa and Corcreca] in darkesome corner pent; Where that old woman day and night did pray Vpon her beades deuoutly penitent; Nine hundred Pater nosters euery day, And thrise nine hundred Aues she was wont to say.

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