By Arie S. Issar, Mattanyah Zohar

This survey of the traditional degrees of lakes, rivers and the ocean, in addition to alterations within the compositions of stalagmites and sediments unearths an mind-blowing correlation of weather alterations with the emergence and cave in of civilizations within the center East. The authors finish that weather switch has been the decisive consider the historical past surrounding the origins of the "cradle of civilization".

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The opposite is seen in warm and dry periods. The other source of water are floods draining the eastern part of the watershed of the Galilee and of the western Golan Heights. Springs supply water along the shores of the lake, some of which are saline and warm and were known to have been spas in ancient times. The ratio of flood water in the water balance of the Sea of Galilee is relatively small compared with that flowing from the springs recharged on the mountains of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon which, due to their height, receive a high share of the precipitation.

12 N. ” in Water, Environment and Society in Times of Climate Change, A. Issar and N. ), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. pp. 69–97 (1998). E. Le Roy Laudurie, Times of Feast Times of Famine. A History of Climate Since the Year 1000, Doubleday, New York (1971). H. Lamb, Climate History and the Modern World, Methuen, London (1982). H. Lamb Climate: Present, Past and Future. Princeton University Press, (1985). L. Parry, Climatic Change, Agriculture and Settlement, Archon Books, Folkstone, Dawson (1978).

Using sedimentological and paleontological methods, the investigation revealed that the subsurface of the Coastal Plain is built of alternate layers of sandstones, sands, loam and clays. This was deciphered into a series of transgressions and regressions of the sea. Sands and sandstones were deposited during the transgression periods, while during the regressions, clays were deposited and loam was formed under terrestrial conditions by weathering of the sandstones. This sequence was often datable by fossils and archaeological remains.

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