By Zhuangzi, A. C. Graham

Author note: Translated by means of A. C. Graham
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The internal Chapters are the oldest items of the bigger selection of writings through a number of fourth, 3rd, and moment century B.C. authors that represent the vintage of Taoism, the Chuang-Tzu (or Zhuangzi). it truly is this center of historical writings that's ascribed to Chuang-Tzu himself.

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Example text

A point which seems to me of some theoretical interest in moral philosophy48 is the unfamiliar manner in which Chuang-tzŭ jumps the gap between fact and value. He everywhere assumes that to know how to act I have only to contemplate the objective situation and let myself respond. Is he not overlooking what is nowadays a commonplace, that one can know all the facts about a situation without knowing how to act in it? The fallacy of leaping from ‘is’ to ‘ought’ has been recognised ever since Hume.

In the stories about Chuang-tzŭ later in the book he goes to sleep pillowed on a skull, is found thumping a pot (the most vulgar kind of music-making) on the death of his wife, and on his deathbed laughs at his disciples for preferring to have him decently buried and eaten by the worms rather than left in the open to be eaten by the birds. This physical confrontation with death, and mockery of the rites of mourning, for Chinese the most sacred of all, is characteristic of the Inner chapters and of stories about Chuang-tzŭ himself, but is very rare elsewhere in Taoist literature, even in the rest of Chuang-tzŭ.

97 Yet words do order themselves in speech, not according to any rules of disputation, but by that unanalysable knack which he discerns 54 at the bottom of all successful behaviour, and which is the sign that Heaven is working through us. 98 55 8 The book Chuang-tzŭ and the problem of translation Chuang-tzŭ illustrates to perfection the kind of battering which a text may suffer between being written in one language and being transferred to another at the other end of the world some two thousand years later.

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