By Renee Ann Cramer

Within the context of U.S.-Indian legislations, federal acknowledgment establishes a belief courting among an Indian tribe and the U.S. executive. because of that belief, the tribe gets major merits, together with tax-exempt prestige, reclamation rights, and—of probably maximum modern day curiosity to the yank public—the correct to manage and make the most of its personal casinos.

Some tribes, even though, haven't been federally said, or, in additional universal language, “recognized.” In Cash, colour, and Colonialism, Renée Ann Cramer deals a finished research of the federal acknowledgment procedure, putting it in historic, felony, and social context.

Exploring the formal and casual struggles over acknowledgment, Cramer argues that we won't totally comprehend the method till we comprehend 3 contexts during which it operates: the expansion of on line casino pursuits because 1988, the superiority of racial attitudes bearing on Indian id, and the colonial legacy of U.S.-Indian law.

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Additional info for Cash, Color, And Colonialism: The Politics Of Tribal Acknowledgment

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Georga (1831) that tribes were "domestic dependent nations . . in a state of pupilage . . [in a relationship much like that of] a ward to his guardian" and capable of learning from interaction with whites. Marshall's construction of American Indians by law, the myth of dependency, casts Indians as hopelessly savage and backward and in desperate need of government help, protection, and guidance. In part through the advocacy of missionary societies and progressive, self-named Friends of the Indian such as those who met in upstate New York and held a series of conferences known collectively as the Lake Mohonk Conference, federal policy toward Indian tribes shifted from Removal and separation to assimilation and integration.

The first of those occupations took place on Alcatraz Island, an unused prison site in San Francisco Bay that nearly one hundred "Indians of All Tribes" held for a period of nineteen months (from 1969 to 1972). During the occupation, Indians of All Tribes established classes in traditional living, hosted press conferences, and met with visiting tribal dignitaries from across the continent. Alcatraz served as a point of crystallization for the movement and as a model for nearly all of the other occupations, most of which were staged on unused military installations, including Ellis Island 28 CASH, COLOR, AND COLONIALISM (prior to the development of the museum there), the Twin Cities Naval Air Station, former missile sites on Lake Michigan and in Beverly Hills, and an unused Army communications center in Davis, California.

As a result of the increased politicization of Indian identity in the 1960s and 1970s, Indians began to make demands upon the federal government in myriad ways. They organized sit-ins and land takeovers, testified at congressional hearings, and used the legal system to bring land, water, and identity claims in federal district courts throughout the nation. This activism, and some of the benefits won by Indians, contributed to a renaissance in Indian identity and led to questions about who had the right to claim tribal status.

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