By Menno-Jan Kraak, Ferjan Ormeling

This revised and up to date variation integrates the most recent in sleek know-how with conventional cartographic ideas. whereas delivering an exceptional conceptual starting place in cartographic technique, the textual content additionally introduces the very most up-to-date advances that experience vastly stimulated cartographic innovations. the recent variation displays the expanding value of cartography because the foundation for additional geographical examine, the textual content has been up-to-date all through and chapters at the most up-to-date advancements in cartography were built-in. there's additionally a extra common emphasis on multimedia and the internet.

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Additional info for Cartography: Visualization of Geospatial Data, 3rd Edition

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11(c), and it does not refer to any geospatial relationships between the objects defined in the structure. It is unable to answer questions that are not related to drawing its content. Checking its consistency can only be done visually. This approach was introduced at the beginning of the 1970s. More advanced are those vector data structures that contain topology. Topology defines the mutual relations between geospatial objects and can be used to check consistency among point, line and area objects, or help in finding answers to more complex queries.

1, digitizing refers to the conversion of analogue images into digital representation. The main means of converting analogue into digital data are scanners. Before scanners were used, manual digitizers were employed, consisting of a tablet in which wires were embedded, located along Cartesian axes. A cursor was linked to the tablet and, when a cursor button was pushed somewhere on the tablet, the electrical charge generated was picked up by those wires directly underneath in the tablet, and the wires activated would then provide their specific codes as x and y coordinates.

Spatial data needed for good governance at all levels should be abundant and widely available under conditions that do not restrain its extensive use. Data discoverability, data validity and data rights. In this context it means that it must be easy to discover which spatial data is available that fits the needs for a particular use and under what conditions it can be acquired and used. By nature an atlas has several relevant facilities for data discovery, such as an index for geographical names, a topical index, and index maps.

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