By John F. Eisenberg (auth.), John L. Gittleman (eds.)

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An example of this distinction involves the individual identity of the sender. 26 Gustav Peters and W. Chris Wozencra(t This message type is not known to be represented by a particular vocalization in the fissipeds, but structural characteristics typical of the sender are present in various types of acoustic signals that represent other message types. 1, column 1). 1, column 2). , visual or olfactory) that also contribute to their meaning for the receiver. This classification of message types will not consider such interdependence here.

Therefore, the hearing range of these four species by far exceeds the frequency range of the species' acoustic signals, which are well within the range of their best auditory sensitivity (1-16 kHz). Auditory perception by juveniles also starts to develop in this range, especially in its lower portion, where maternal vocalizations have their main energy. It has been argued that hearing in the high-frequency range in carnivores is an adaptation to the detection of small mammals, especially rodents, which have calls in the ultrasonic range.

Individual identity of the sender of dwarf mongoose (Helogale parvula) "contact calls" is probably encoded in the call's pitch (Marquardt 1976; Rasa 1986). Differentiations of the same basic type are the "play" and the "moving out" calls, their messages probably being partially encoded in different repetition rates (Marquardt 1976; Maier et al. 1983). In meerkat (Suricata suricatta) alarm calls, the type of predator is partly Acoustic Communication by Fissiped Carnivores 25 encoded in call intensity (Moran 1984), whereas in dwarf mongoose alarm calls it is mainly in call duration, frequency modulation, and noisiness (Maier et al.

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