By Toni Erskine
Can associations, within the feel of formal organisations, be thought of at risk of ethical burdens? The participants to this e-book severely study the belief of the 'collective' or 'institutional' ethical agent in, inter alia , the guise of states, transnational companies, the UN and foreign society. The viability of treating those entities as bearers of ethical duties is explored within the context of a few of the main serious and debated concerns and occasions in diplomacy, together with the genocide in Rwanda, improvement relief, the Kosovo crusade and international justice.
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Extra resources for Can Institutions Have Responsibilities?: Collective Moral Agency and International Relations
85. French is quoting from D. Wiggins, ‘Locke, Butler, and the Stream of Consciousness: And Men as a Natural Kind’, in A. ), The Identities of Persons (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), pp. 139–73 (p. 161). Although I think that this is an important criterion, it should be noted that some theorists would deny that even the individual human being fulfils it completely, arguing instead that individuals experience change and reconstitution over time. The phrase ‘networking institutions’ is used by, among others, Onora O’Neill in ‘From Statist to Global Conceptions of Justice’, in C.
Caveats outlining the negative effects of conditional aid to states in sub-Saharan Africa are based on a variety of rationales. 45 Benno Ndulu and Stephen O’Connell argue that only broad public debate over national policy can encourage the political pluralism needed to foster economic growth. 46 The present analysis lends support to these warnings to avoid excessive donor micromanagement and allow states to maintain some degree of autonomy over their own affairs. However, it does so with primary reference to an alternative set of considerations: the extent to which such policies undermine both a state’s independence from other actors and its concomitant ability to exercise moral agency.
15 The idea that his ‘artificial moral person’ must have a central decision-making function is important for two reasons. First, it demands that the collectivity be able to deliberate. In other words, it introduces a requisite capacity to access and process information. Second, it entails a degree of decision-making unity that would allow the collectivity in question to arrive at a predetermined goal, rather than simply displaying a spontaneous convergence of individual interests. In short, this criterion stipulates that the collectivity be capable of purposive action – exactly the feature that is 24 Toni Erskine lacking in the crowd that, at most, is capable of patterns of coordinated action without any effective integration of information between the individuals involved.