By T. R. Oke

This contemporary climatology textbook explains the climates shaped close to the floor when it comes to the biking of strength and mass via structures

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6, this is particularly due to the absorptivities of water vapour (H O), carbon dioxide (CO ) and ozone (O ). Of these, 2 2 3 water vapour is by far the most important. If liquid water is present, as cloud droplets, the absorptivity is even greater. There is, however, one important gap in a cloudless Atmosphere’s absorption spectrum for longwave radiation. Except for a narrow band of ozone absorption (9·6 to 9·8 µm), the Atmosphere is open to the transmission of radiation in the 8 to 11 m band.

Energy of importance to climatology exists in the Earth-Atmosphere system in four different forms (radiant, thermal, kinetic and potential) and is continually being transformed from one to another. Hence, for example, the Input energy might be entirely radiant but the Output might be a mixture of all four forms. Equally the Input and Output modes of energy transport may be very different. The exchange of energy within the Earth-Atmosphere system is possible in three modes (conduction, convection and radiation (see Section 3 for explanation)).

E. 5) the Atmosphere is relatively transparent. Even the absorption by liquid water drops in cloud is relatively small. The portion of the incoming solar radiation that is reflected and scattered, together with that multiply-reflected between the surface and the atmosphere (back-scattered), gives diffuse short-wave radiation (D). As an approximation we may consider this radiant receipt to arrive from all parts of the sky hemisphere, although in cloudless conditions it is greater from the area of the sky around the solar disc and near the horizon.

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