By Yitzhaq Feder

This pioneering learn examines using blood to purge the consequences of sin and impurity in Hittite and biblical ritual. the concept blood atones for sins holds a fashionable position in either Jewish and Christian traditions. the writer strains this idea again to its earliest documentation within the fourteenth- and thirteenth-century B.C.E. texts from Hittite Anatolia, during which the smearing of blood is used as a way of expiation, purification, and consecration. This ceremony parallels, in either its approach and objectives, the biblical sin delivering. the writer argues that this custom stems from a standard culture manifested in either cultures. furthermore, this publication goals to decipher and elucidate the symbolism of the perform of blood smearing by means of trying to establish the sociocultural context within which the expiatory importance of blood originated. therefore, it's crucial interpreting for a person attracted to the which means and efficacy of formality, the origins of Jewish and Christian notions of sin and atonement, and the starting place of the biblical blood ceremony.

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75 As a whole, this ritual seeks to protect the future temple from negative influences and secure the blessings of the gods. NA (“House of Heaven”). See most recently Beaulieu, “Eanna=Ayakkum in the Basekti Inscription,” n. 36. In several texts, it appears in parallelism with temples. Furthermore, ayakku appears as an epithet for gods in the form dBelat-Ayakki in Hittite and NA texts. ” Cf. ” Friedrich & Kammenhuber translate “Gegenstand im Tempel” (HW 2 A, 47). Cf. also Otten, “Bemerkungen zum Hethitischen Wörterbuch,” 92.

Also Otten, “Bemerkungen zum Hethitischen Wörterbuch,” 92. 72. See von Brandenstein, “Ein arisches und ein Semitisches Lehnwort,” 58–62; CAD H, 126–27; HEG H, 233; HED H, 284–86. Cf. Laroche, GLH, 100.  Kellerman, Rituels de fondation hittites, 195–96. 74. For example, see the sources cited by Maul, “NINDAGEŠTUG = ḫasīsītu,” n. 7. 75. 35+ (CTH 716) iv 11–12. 26 blood expiation in hittite and biblical ritual dation. This action may seek to secure the presence of the divine mistress in the new structure, or at least to secure her blessing.

38–43 and p. 77–97, respectively. 38 blood expiation in hittite and biblical ritual The Courtyard Sin Offering. The procedure of the courtyard sin offering is described as follows: 22When the chieftain does wrong by violating any of YHWH’s prohibitive commandments inadvertently, and he incurs guilt, 23or he is informed of the wrong he committed, he shall bring as his offering a male goat without blemish. 24He shall lean his hand on the goat’s head, and it shall be slaughtered at the spot where the burnt offering is slaughtered, before YHWH: it is a sin offering.

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