By Anthony Kenny

Voluntariness & Involuntariness
Purposive Choice
Practical Reasoning
Index of Aristotelian Passages
Index of contemporary Authors
Index of topics

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19. This is a frequently used analogy, also used by the Cambridge Platonists and John Wilkins. 17 These are Plato, Aristotle, Homer, Theognis, Epictetus, Seneca, Stobaeus, Iamblichus, Hierocles, and Marcus Aurelius, especially as important sources of ‘good morall principles’. Barlow’s syllabus conforms to the prevailing view that religion and ethics are linked. Barlow also reminds his students of the importance of philosophy for theological controversy, especially for ‘understanding the Schoolemen, & a great part of ordinarie Controversies’, advising his students to ‘oft reviewe, & keepe your Logick, & Metaphysicks and that part of Physics especially which treats de Anima’.

Kirk,‘ “Melvillian” Reform in the Scottish Universities’, in A. A. MacDonald et al. (eds), The Renaissance in Scotland: Studies in Literature, Religion, History, and Culture Offered to John Durkan (Leiden: Brill, 1994), pp. 276–300. 6 Most students who enrolled at one of the universities did not progress to higher subjects, unless they were destined for a career in the church or universities. A university education laid the foundations not just of the higher disciplines, but of non-specialist or ‘lay’ learning of the majority who did not proceed to Masters level and beyond.

Invention involves the discovery of precepts through perception, observation, proof by trial, and induction, and progresses from concrete particulars to universals. The method of doctrine or discourse transmits the knowledge thereby obtained, descending from universals to particulars. Sanderson’s conception of invention is suggestive of Baconian influence, possibly anticipating Descartes. The main changes in the teaching of logic reflect the impact on the one hand of Ramism and of Cartesianism on the other.

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