By Erik J. Molenaar, Timo Koivurova, Elizabeth Tedsen, Andrew Reid, Kamrul Hossain (auth.), Elizabeth Tedsen, Sandra Cavalieri, R. Andreas Kraemer (eds.)

The Arctic area performs a tremendous position in regulating the world’s weather and can be hugely impacted by way of weather swap, with common temperatures emerging nearly two times as quickly because the remainder of the realm and sea ice melting a lot quicker than formerly estimated. those fast alterations may have major affects on human task within the quarter and at the Arctic marine surroundings.

This ebook attracts at the result of the 2008-2009 Arctic remodel venture, funded by way of the ecu Commission‘s Directorate common of exterior relatives, which engaged specialists in a transatlantic dialogue at the roles of the ecu Union and usa in mild of the Arctic’s altering weather and political and criminal complexities. . The publication addresses the numerous alterations and advancements within the marine Arctic, with descriptions and suggestions reflecting the present governance atmosphere. A finished evaluation of environmental governance and sustainable improvement within the Arctic is created. Chapters discover affects and actions via area, taking a look at fisheries, transport, and offshore hydrocarbon within the Arctic, and at coverage suggestions and techniques for bettering marine governance within the sector. a selected concentration is given to the jobs of the eu Union and usa and possibilities for cooperation to reinforce Arctic environmental governance.

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Ocean Acidification The most direct impact of climate change on the Arctic marine environment is caused by acidification. Ocean acidification results from a gas exchange between A. Riedel 32 the oceans and atmosphere, whereby CO2 dissolves in the water and decreases its pH level. Generally, oceans serve as a sink for CO2, but increased anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 concentrations have already led to a higher rate and scope of ocean acidification. This is of particular importance to the Arctic Ocean, since CO2 is more soluble in cold water.

Following these stocks, fishing vessels will also need to use Arctic waters more frequently and/or for extended periods of time—due to increasing accessibility. , due to the need for icebreakers) and other hurdles mentioned above. However, the shipbuilding industry in participating countries could benefit from an increase in demand. On the other hand, the overall increase in traffic holds significant risks for the environment, not only during general operations, but also in the case of accidents or other emergencies (Brigham 2011).

During summer months, surface ozone concentrations in the Arctic could be enhanced by two or three times in the next decades as a result of ship operations through the northern passages (Granier et al. 2006). 5 Oil and Gas Extraction Parts of the Arctic environment also face threats from future exploratory drilling for and exploitation of oil and gas resources. According to a much cited US Geological Survey study, approximately 13 % of the world’s undiscovered oil resources, 30 % of the world’s undiscovered gas resources, and 20 % of undiscovered natural gas liquids are estimated to be located in Arctic region, about 84 % of which are located offshore (Gautier et al.

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