By Ralph Mark Rosen, Ineke Sluiter

An exam of a critical inspiration within the self-definition of any Greek-speaking male: "Andreia", the idea of braveness and manliness. via a mixture of lexical or semantic and conceptual experiences the discourse of manliness and its function within the building of social order is explored.

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On andreia in Herodotus, see Harrell in this volume. ROSEN/F3/25-58 10/1/02 2:11 PM Page 33        33 to know when the word first came into everyday speech and, given the limited number of extant sources, when Greek authors first began to use it. But even given the uncertainty surrounding Herodotus’ dates and the composition of the Histories, it seems likely that the first extant citation is in Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes, produced in 467. I discuss the use of andreia in the works of Aeschylus below; the main point here is that—given our extant sources—the word is post-Homeric.

The word occurs five times in the play, three of which are in the episodes. In the first, Xanthias calls Dionysus’ frightened response to Aeacus’ threats (the god soils himself ) an act of andreia (491). In the same scene, Dionysus tells Xanthias to put on the Heracles costume, since he is andreios (494–6): Come on, since you are high-spirited and manly Take this club and lion skin And be me, if you really have the guts. ‡yi nun, §peidØ lhmatiòw kéndre›ow e‰, sÁ m¢n genoË Ég≈, tÚ =Òpalon tout‹ lab≈n ka‹ tØn leont∞n, e‡per éfobÒsplagxnow e‰: 53 On Frogs, see General Introduction, section 4.

508–9). Translated loosely as ‘masculinity’ in these examples, ±nor°h manifests itself as an exter­ nally recognized attribute or action that shares the semantic field of alkê, sthenos, and kartos. It refers to the visible evidence of looking and acting like a man and doing what a man should do. e. patriarchal) succession. In an article on the representation of Phoenicians in Greek epic, Irene J. Winter summarizes the social and cultural developments that take place between the commonly accepted date of the Homeric poems (mid-eighth century) and the consolidation of the polis.

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