By C.R. Scott
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Extra resources for An introduction to soil mechanics and foundations, 3rd edition
In 1975, each of them was designated a Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization (NRSRO) by the SEC. Champagne and accolades were shared. Truth be told, since the fixed-income market pays closest attention to Moody’s and S&P, you’ll discover that most bond offerings typically exclude Fitch ratings. All three NRSROs are independent companies that are paid fees by bond issuers to evaluate their financial profiles. Now that might seem like a classic case of asking the wolf to protect the chicken coop, but it’s not.
Zero Coupon Bonds Although most bonds have coupons, some fixed-income securities don’t generate any interest payments. These securities are appropriately called zero coupon bonds, or simply zeros. Since zeros are still considered debt like their coupon-paying counterparts, investors continue to earn semiannual interest. ” Good question. Instead of receiving a payment every six months, earned interest accrues to the face value of the bond until it matures at $1,000 par value. That’s why these securities are also known as accrual bonds.
Since each bond costs 100, or $1,000, you multiply that by 50 and get $50,000. Remember, though, to sell those 50 bonds, use the bid instead. Then your proceeds would be $990 × 50 = $49,500. Got it? Good, because it gets a little more complicated. You see—just like the real world—bond prices are seldom neat, with nice round numbers. Think about it—how often does the total cost of any purchase fall exactly on the dollar? That is, without any cents? Well, you should expect the same result in the fixed-income market, namely because bond prices trade in 32nds.