By Safa Kasap, Harry Ruda, Yann Boucher

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N2 n1 (a) Multimode step 3 2 index fiber. Ray paths 1 n are different so that O rays arrive at different times. n2 O O' O'' 3 2 1 2 3 n1 n (b) Graded index fiber. Ray paths are different but so are the velocities along the paths so that all the rays arrive at the same time. n2 GRIN is an acronym for graded index GRIN rod lens is a glass rod whose refractive index is highest at the center, on the rod axis, and then decreases with distance from the rod axis. It is typically used to focus or couple light into a fiber.

Kasap) 36 its cross-section with the maximum index on the rod axis. 5 - 2 mm). A GRIN rod lens can be used to focus the light from an ELED into a fiber. This coupling is particularly useful for single mode fibers inasmuch as their core diameters are typically ~10 µm. The output spectra from surface and edge emitting LEDs using the same semiconductor material is not necessarily the same. The first reason is that the active layers have different doping levels. Second is the self-absorption of some of the photons guided along the active layer as in ELED.

When two perfectly harmonic waves of frequencies ω − δω and ω + δω interfere, they generate a wave packet which contains an oscillating electric field at the mean frequency ω that is amplitude modulated by a slowly varying field of frequency δω. The maximum amplitude moves with a group velocity that is given by dω vg = dk The group velocity therefore defines the speed with which energy or information is propagated since it defines the speed of the envelope of the amplitude variation. The maximum electric field advances with a velocity vg whereas the phase variations in the electric field are propagating at the phase velocity v.

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