By George W. Cox

In Alien Species and Evolution, biologist George W. Cox experiences and synthesizes rising details at the evolutionary alterations that happen in vegetation, animals, and microbial organisms once they colonize new geographical components, and at the evolutionary responses of the local species with which alien species interact.
The ebook is large in scope, exploring details throughout a large choice of taxonomic teams, trophic degrees, and geographic parts. It examines theoretical issues on the topic of speedy evolutionary swap and helps the rising idea that species brought to new actual and biotic environments are relatively susceptible to swift evolution. the writer attracts on examples from all components of the realm and all significant surroundings kinds, and the diversity of examples used offers substantial perception into the styles of evolution which are prone to outcome from the big advent of species to new geographic areas that's at the moment happening round the globe.
Alien Species and Evolution is the single cutting-edge assessment and synthesis to be had of this significantly vital subject, and is a necessary paintings for an individual considering the hot technological know-how of invasion biology or the threats posed by way of invasive species.

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Some museum specimens, for example, are good sources of mtDNA, although it is usually impossible to extract DNA from specimens preserved in formalin. The noncoding, control region (d-loop) of the mitochondrial genome shows a higher rate of evolutionary change than nuclear DNA. The sequences obtained can be examined to determine the degree of variability within populations or the degree of similarity among populations. Portions of the mtDNA molecule can also be examined by RFLP. Mitochondrial analysis can also be conducted for plants.

The most successful alien invaders are those that combine effective mechanisms of natural and human-assisted dispersal. Over the past millennia, especially since humans began practicing agriculture, many mechanisms have evolved to enhance the likelihood of dispersal by human agency. Successful invaders must also be adapted for quick establishment in new locations and must possess specific mechanisms for quickly capturing the resources required for growth and reproduction. Adaptations for natural dispersal by different organisms include spores, seeds, larval stages, or other propagules that can be carried great distances by wind or water.

Almost all alien plants that are dioecious or monoecious but which reproduce by obligatory outcrossing show levels of genetic variability equal to or only slightly below that of their source populations. Some of these species, such as tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), are highly invasive. A few, however, exhibit somewhat reduced variability, reflecting small founding populations or genetic bottlenecking following introduction. Many introduced plants that are self-fertilizing, apomictic, or vegetatively reproducing show lower genetic variability than do populations in their native regions.

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