By Eric P. Koehler David, W. Fowler
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The SCC with slightly lower packing density exhibited better stability due to the higher content of fines smaller than 80 µm and lower coarse aggregate volume. In the mixtures tested, the packing density was decreased by adding more sand relative to coarse aggregate as the binder content was reduced. Sedran and de Larrard (1999) described how the compressible packing model can be used to predict yield stress, plastic viscosity, and constants representing filling/passing ability and segregation resistance.
The Krieger-Dougherty equation has been applied successfully to cement paste (Struble and Sun 1995) and concrete (Szecsy 1997). 7. ) According to Struble and Sun (1995), the Mooney equation is accurate for low volume concentrations but not for high volume concentrations. Roshavelov (1999 and 2005) applied the Mooney equation and a linear packing density model, which was utilized to compute analytically the crowding effects in a polydisperse system, to highly fluid concrete mixtures. Farris (1968) developed an analytical method for calculating the effects of polydispersity on the viscosity of suspensions based on the known viscosity-concentration behavior of the unimodal components.
It is often economically advantageous, however, to reduce NOx emissions to the greatest degree possible to take advantage of tradable emission credits even if it increases ammonia slip. When 39 the fly ash is wetted during concrete mixing, ammonia gas is released. At low concentration levels, ammonia produces a noxious odor. At high levels, it can be toxic. Ammonia contents should generally be less than 50-100 ppm to avoid objectionable odors. It is generally agreed that the presence of ammonia does not detrimentally affect concrete properties; however, limited test data exist (Bittner, Gasiorowski, and Hrach 2001).