By Ralph Remsburg

The box of digital packaging maintains to develop at an awesome fee. to achieve success during this box calls for analytical abilities, a beginning in mechanical engineering, and entry to the most recent advancements within the electronics box. The emphasis for every undertaking that the digital packaging engineer faces adjustments from undertaking to venture, and from corporation to corporation, but a few constants may still proceed into the foreseeable destiny. this kind of is the emphasis on ther­ mal layout. even if quite a few years in the past thermal research of digital gear used to be an afterthought, it's turning into one of many fundamental elements of many packaging jobs. it sounds as if the times of simply including an even bigger fan to lessen the overheat­ ing challenge are virtually over. exchanging that notion is the up-front dedication to CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software program code, FEA (Finite aspect research) software program, and the conclusion that the matter will in simple terms worsen. because the digital circuit dimension is lowered, pace is elevated. because the strength of those structures raises and the quantity allowed diminishes, warmth flux or density (heat in keeping with unit quarter, W/m 2 or Btulh ft2) has spiraled. a lot of the advance within the reliability and packaging density of digital circuits may be traced to advances in thermal layout. whereas air cooling continues to be used largely, complicated warmth move ideas utilizing unique man made drinks have gotten extra admired, permitting nonetheless smaller structures to be synthetic. The appli­ cation of complex thermal administration strategies calls for a history in fluid dynamics.

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J), 2 gz = bulk potential energy per unit mass (J/kg or Btu/lb m ) . v. s. v. where : i = u + pip = enthalpy per unit mass (J/kg or Btullb m ) . 2 SecondLaw of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics shows how to evaluate changes in state of a system resulting from the interactions of a system and its surroundings. The second law of thermodynamics leads to the thermodynamic property entropy, which points to the direction of a system change from structure to chaos. The first law of thermodynamics does not show the direction of an action.

0 "" " DRAM.... •...... ........... :::. 1 Component failure rates with temperature for Programmable Array Logic (PAL), 256K Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), and Microprocessor. Data are from MIL-HDBK-2l7. hot object to a fluid coolant presumes a linear dependence on the temperature rise along the surface of the solid, known as Newtonian cooling . 1) where: qe = convective heat flow rate from the surface (W or Btu/h), A = surface area for heat transfer (m? or ft 2) , T, = surface temperature (OC, K, of , or OR), Tm = coolant media temperature ( OC, K, of , or OR), he = coefficient of convective heat transfer (W/m 2 K or Btu/h ft 2 OF).

3 Conductivity in Fluids Fluid s, both liquids and gases, have much greater spacing between molecules than solid s and therefore much lower thermal conductivities. The thermal conducti vity of a fluid varie s with pressure and temperature. Within the pressure range of fluids used in electronic cooling, we can ignore thermal conductivity variances with pressure. Temperature, however, can greatly affect the thermal conductivity of liquids or gases . Within the range of temperatures used in electronic cooling, the thermal conductivity change of a gas is linear with temperature change, but is different for each gas.

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