By Charles R. Krahmalkov

This quantity comprises the phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax, language and utilization of the Phoenician-Punic language. It comprises examples from texts and dialects, together with fragments of a Punic drama, to deliver to existence the grammatical description of this language. the outline of the literary language holds that annoying and point reference of a given type of the verb is basically a functionality of syntax, no longer morphology.

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Important Obs. In this grammar, S is used for the grapheme but s for the pronunciation of the phoneme. 1 m y t h mit (MT "deceased"), et passim. 2. Noteworthy Phonological Phenomena 2a. Assimilation -nC- > -CCIn Phoenician (Byblian and Tyro-Sidonian), the consonant n contiguous to a following consonant was assimilated to that consonant, with resultant gemination (doubling) of the latter. 5 M$BT missibt < mansibt ("stele") et passim. 3/ 4 (from Daphnae) TNTN tinteni ("you gave"). 1 MS'T missef)t < mansit ("payment").

Plautus preserved specimens of other Greek comedies in Punic in his Poenulus, among them a fragment of M e n a n d e r ' s comedy that was the model for Plautus's Aulularia ("Pot of Gold"), specifically, the dialogue of Megadorus and Euclio in which Megadorus invites the miser to drink wine but Euclio vehemently refuses for fear of revealing, under the influence, the hiding-place of his pot of gold. Plautus's Latin version of this dialogue appears is Aulularia 569-572; the Punic version is preserved (as foreign gobbledygook) in Poenulus 1142.

940 m a c o m maqom (MQM "city"); NPu Poen. 934 m a r o b maC)rob {M'RB "custody"), et passim. N: Alveolar nasal resonant /n/: Pu Poen. 942 anec "anik^NK "I"); NPu Poen. 936 innochoth innokot (HNKT "here"), et passim. S: Alveolar groove fricative /s/\ Pu Poen. 1023 s u c a r t i m (SKRTM "you remember"); NPu Poen. ), et passim. This sibilant had by ca. C. 1). c c ( ayin): Pharyngeal obstruent / 7 . No orthographic device was used to represent this phoneme in Latin-letter Punic nor is it entirely evident that the phoneme survived in late Punic, as witnessed by its non-representation in Poen.

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