By Gabriel Reynolds

In 385 AH/AD 995 the Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, popular for his Mu'tazili theological writings, wrote the affirmation of the Proofs of Prophecy, a piece that features a artistic polemic opposed to Christianity. 'Abd al-Jabbar reinterprets the Bible, Church heritage (especially the lives of Paul and Constantine) and Christian perform to argue that Christians replaced the Islamic faith of Jesus. the current paintings starts with an exam of the arguable idea that this polemic used to be borrowed from an unknown Judaeo-Christian staff. the writer argues that 'Abd al-Jabbar's polemic is best understood as a reaction to his specific milieu and the on-going inter-religious debates of the medieval Islamic international. through studying the lifestyles and regarded 'Abd al-Jabbar, besides the Islamic, Christian and Jewish antecedants to his polemic, the writer uncovers the intimate dating among sectarian controversy and the improvement of an Islamic doctrine on Christianity.

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Extra resources for A Muslim Theologian in the Sectarian Milieu: Abd al-Jabbar and the Critique of Christian Origins (Islamic History and Civilization)

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See Ibn al-Nadìm, 229–230, who lists him among the Mujbira and not among the Mu'tazila, reporting that he held God and not man as the creator of acts. Thus Óafß was accused of holding a heterodox position like that of his teacher Îiràr. Cf. Van Ess, TG, 2:729–35, especially 730. The Zaydì al-Qàsim b. Ibràhìm al-Rassì (d. 246/860), author of a famous anti-Christian polemic, reports that Óafß engaged in a formal religious debate with a Coptic Christian. See van Ess, TG, 2:734. 50 Works entitled Radd 'alà l-naßàrà are attributed to both of them.

M. Eliade, 16 vols. (New York: MacMillan, 1987), 10:220–229; van Ess, TG; Rashìd al-Khayùn, Mu'tazilat al-Baßra wa-l-Baghdàd (London: Dàr al-Óikma, 1997); S. /10. Jahrhundert,” Arabica 45 (1998), 379–408. See also Schmidtke’s introduction to Zamakhsharì, al-Minhàj fì ußùl al-dìn, ed. S. Schmidtke (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1997). 11 Two monographs have been written on 'Abd al-Jabbàr’s theological thought: G. Hourani’s Islamic Rationalism: the Ethics of 'Abd al-Jabbàr and J. 13 Two general statements can be made on this topic at the outset.

3:120. the historical context of 'abd al-jabbàr’s CRITIQUE 23 pillar in the mosque. ” Thus the movement received its name: Mu'tazila. 17 H. M. Watt, meanwhile, 17 Shahrastànì’s narrative became canonical in western scholarship partly due to the fact that it is in one of the first historical works to be published and translated into both English and German (W. Cureton, Kitâb al-milal wan-ni˙al. Book of Religious and Philosophical Sects by Muhammad al-Shahrastani [London: Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts, 1842–6].

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