By William Lockley Miller

Dependent upon surveys and interviews with executive officers and voters, this publication specializes in matters reminiscent of bribery, corruption, inefficiency and freedom of knowledge in Ukraine, Bulgaria, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The authors transcend an research of public perceptions and behavior and consider public attitudes in the direction of proposals for reform. They exhibit how the matter of voters' interactions with officers varies in style in addition to in measure around the nations of valuable and jap Europe.

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Additional resources for A Culture of Corruption: Coping With Government in Post-Communist Europe

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They also give some support to h d r h Saj6’s complaint that ‘Western experts rely on anecdotes.. Exaggerating the problem.. 5 Butown ourfindings suggest that it is not just ‘Western experts’or those ‘with evil intent’ but also the ordinary citizens who live in post-communist societies themselves who ‘exaggerate the problem’ when they ‘relyon anecdotes’. They tell a different and less own personal experience. dramatic story when they rely on their Moreover, our frndings indicate that the gulf between perceptions and experience varies systematically with the level of corruption.

Nonetheless, both extortion and values have an independent impact. Condemnation stiffens resistance to extortion, even if many of those who condemn it to still submit to it. Butthe ability o f personal values to stiffen resistance extortion varies, andit is exceptionally ineffectivein Ukraine. Chapter 6 looks at the treatment and behaviour of ethnic minorities. These are particularly sensitive issuesin central Europe and the Balkans. There is a very widespread perception that officials treat clients of their own ‘nationality’ or ethnic group better than other clients.

Iour is determined by current conditions, not The ‘fading legacy’ model argues that people enter the present with all the baggage of their past. They may adjustto current conditions, but that takes time. Reforms have a gradual effect. It will take time for the old corrupt ways of communism to be replaced by thoseof free-market democracy, but change and reformare possible, even natural. Old ways and old thinking may linger on but if the conditions that created and sustained them no longer exist, then they will fade.

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